Madain Shaleh, Kota Kuno di Bukit Berbatu - Jogja Info [dot] net

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Friday, 29 April 2011

Madain Shaleh, Kota Kuno di Bukit Berbatu

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, Bagi anda yang melakukan ibadah haji atau umrah, tentu akan menyempatkan diri untuk berkunjung ke tempat-tempat ziarah yang terdapat di sekitar kota Makkah atau Madinah. Salah satu tempat yang biasa atau dapat dikunjungi wisatawan atau peziarah adalah Madai'n Saleh, sebuah kota kuno yang terletak di Arab Saudi bagian utara.


Mada'in Saleh disebut juga Al-Hijr—atau Hegra dalam bahasa Yunani—terletak sekitar 1.400 kilometer sebelah utara Riyadh. Sebutan Al-Hijr digunakan hingga abad ke-14 M, dan sekarang lebih dikenal dengan nama Madai'n Saleh, menisbatkan pada Nabi Saleh as.


Mada'in Saleh dianggap sebagai salah satu kota yang paling penting dan kuno tertua di Arab Saudi. Situs bersejarah ini terletak di barat laut kota Al-Ula, dalam posisi strategis di salah satu rute yang paling penting pada masa perdagangan kuno. Kawasan ini menghubungkan selatan semenanjung Arab ke utara, seiring dengan majunya pusat ekonomi dan kebudayaan Mesopotamia, Suriah dan Mesir.

Mada'in Saleh ditandai dengan formasi bebatuan yang mengesankan, bukit-bukit pasir beragam warna, dari merah, kuning dan putih. Keindahan lanskap ini kian menarik seiring dengan menjulangnya bukit pasir keemasan yang membatasi semua sisinya. Luas Mada'in Saleh secara keseluruhan sekitar 4.010 hektar, yang terdiri dari berbagai kompleks pemakaman dan tempat tinggal. Pada 2008, UNESCO menyatakan Mada'in Saleh sebagai situs warisan dunia, yang pertama di Arab Saudi.


Pada abad ke-19, sebagai salah satu peninggalan arkeologi yang muncul di Timur Dekat, Mada'in Saleh mulai menggantikan Al-Hijr sebagai nama resmi. Walau dipercaya bahwa situs kaum Nabi Saleh memang ada di sini, namun potongan-potongan batu makam di Al-Hijr diukir bertahun-tahun kemudian oleh kaum Nabataea, sebuah peradaban Arab yang berbeda.


Kaum Nabataea adalah keturunan Arab yang menjadi kaya dengan memonopoli perdagangan rempah-rempah, khususnya antara Timur dan Romawi, kerajaan Yunani dan Mesir. Suku Nabataea dikatakan sebagai suku yang misterius, meskipun sebagian besar ahli sejarah menyebutnya termasuk ke dalam golongan bangsa Arab.


Sebelum Nabataea, yang mendiami Mada'in Saleh adalah kaum Tsamud, yang hidup antara zaman Nabi Nuh hingga zaman Nabi Musa as. Namun karena keterampilan mengukir bebatuan antara dua peradaban yang berbeda berada di satu lokasi, informasi yang muncul akhirnya menjadi kepercayaan bahwa kuburan Nabataea di Al-Hijr adalah merupakan tempat tinggal kaum Tsamud, kaum Nabi Saleh.


Padahal peradaban kedua bangsa ini dipisahkan jarak sekitar dua milenia. Sebagian teolog dan sejarawan percaya bahwa Nabi Saleh hidup sekitar 2.100 SM, sedangkan makam Al-Hijr baru dipahat oleh suku Nabataea pada abad ke-1 Masehi.


Menurut kitab suci Al-Qur'an, tiga milenium sebelum Masehi, situs Mada'in Saleh telah ditempati oleh suku Tsamud. Mereka adalah kaum yang menyembah berhala, di mana tirani dan penindasan menjadi lazim. Nabi Saleh as, sesuai dengan nama Mada'in Saleh, mengajak kaum Tsamud untuk bertobat dan menyembah Allah SWT.


Namun kaum Tsamud menolak, bahkan mereka meminta sang Nabi untuk memanggil seekor unta betina dari belakang bukit untuk membuktikan kebenaran dakwahnya. Nabi Saleh pun memanggil unta tersebut, tiba-tiba ia datang dari balik bukit. Unta itu dikirimkan Allah sebagai bukti kebenaran misi Nabi Saleh.


Walau demikian, hanya sebagian kecil saja yang percaya pada dakwah Nabi Saleh. Mereka yang ingkar malah membunuh unta suci itu, bukan merawatnya sebagaimana yang mereka pinta. Tiba-tiba betis unta itu berlari kembali ke balik bukit di mana ia datang seraya menjerit-jerit.


Kaum Tsamud diberi waktu tiga hari untuk bertobat sebelum hukuman datang. Namun mereka tetap saja bebal dan tak mengindahkan peringatan Nabi Saleh. Akhirnya, Nabi Saleh dan para pengikutnya pergi meninggalkan kota tersebut. Dan kaum Tsamud mendapatkan azab Allah—nyawa mereka melayang di tengah-tengah ledakan gempa bumi dan petir yang menyambar.


Situs arkeologi Mada'in Saleh terletak di lingkungan gersang, dan iklim yang kering. Hal ini memberikan gambaran tentang kuatnya daya tahan dan kehidupan suku Nabataea. Di dalam kitab Perjanjian Lama dan beberapa manuskrip tua, disebutkan bahwa di masa lalu kota ini bernama Dedan. Di kota inilah situs arkeologi Mada'in Saleh berada.





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Madain Shaleh, the Ancient City of Rocky Mount


REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, For those of you who make the pilgrimage or Umrah, would be the time to visit the shrines located in the vicinity of Makkah or Madinah. One of the usual place or can be visited by tourists or pilgrims were Madai'n Saleh, an ancient city located in northern Saudi Arabia.

Mada'in Saleh also called Al-Hijr Hegra-or Greek-lies about 1,400 kilometers north of Riyadh. The name Al-Hijr used until the 14th century AD, and is now better known as Madai'n Saleh, Saleh as attribute to the Prophet.

Mada'in Saleh regarded as one of the most important and oldest old in Saudi Arabia. This historic site is located in the northwest of the town of Al-Ula, in a strategic position in one of the most important route in the ancient trade. This region connects the southern Arabian peninsula to the north, along with the advance of economic and cultural center of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt.

Mada'in Saleh marked by impressive rock formations, sand dunes variety of colors, from red, yellow and white. The beauty of the landscape is increasingly attractive as menjulangnya golden sand dunes that restrict all sides. Mada'in Saleh Area as a whole around 4010 hectares, which consists of a variety of complex burial and place of residence. In 2008, UNESCO declared Mada'in Saleh as world heritage site, the first in Saudi Arabia.

In the 19th century, as one of the archaeological heritage that emerged in the Near East, began to replace Mada'in Saleh Al-Hijr as the official name. Although it is believed that the site of the prophet Saleh was here, but the pieces of stone tomb at Al-Hijr carved many years later by the Nabataea, a different Arab civilization.

The Nabataea are of Arab descent who became rich by monopolizing the spice trade, especially between the Eastern and Roman, Greek and Egyptian empire. Nabataea tribe said to be a tribe of mysterious, though most historians call it included in the group of Arabs.

Before Nabataea, who inhabit Mada'in Saleh is Thamood, who lived between the time of Noah until the time of Prophet Musa. However, because the skills to carve rocks between two different civilizations which are in one location, the information that appears finally to be the belief that Nabataea graves in Al-Hijr is the residence Thamood, the Prophet Saleh.

Though the civilization of both nations separated a distance of about two millennia. Most theologians and historians believe that the Prophet Saleh lived around 2100 BC, while the tomb of Al-Hijr Nabataea newly carved by tribes in the 1st century AD.

According to the holy book the Qur'an, third millennium BC, the site has been occupied by Mada'in Saleh Thamud tribe. They are a people who worship idols, where tyranny and oppression became prevalent. Prophet Saleh as, according to the name of Mada'in Saleh, invites Thamood to repent and worship God Almighty.

However Thamood refuse, they even asked the Prophet to summon a female camel from behind the hill to prove the truth of his message. Prophet Saleh also called the camel, he suddenly came from behind the hill. Camels were sent by God as proof of the truth of the mission of Prophet Saleh.

However, only a small proportion who believe in the mission of Prophet Saleh. Those who refuse to kill even the sacred camel, not caring as they pleaded. Suddenly the camel calf ran back behind the hill where she came as she was screaming.

Thamood given three days to repent before the punishment comes. But they remain just ignorant and do not heed the warnings of the Prophet Saleh. Finally, the Prophet Saleh and his followers left the city. And Thamood get punishment of God-their lives floating in the middle of explosion earthquakes and lightning strike.

Mada'in Saleh archaeological sites located in arid environments, and the dry climate. This gives an idea of ​​the strength and durability Nabataea tribal life. In the Old Testament and some old manuscripts, mentioned that in the past this town called Dedan. In this city Mada'in Saleh archaeological sites are located.REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, For those of you who make the pilgrimage or Umrah, would be the time to visit the shrines located in the vicinity of Makkah or Madinah. One of the usual place or can be visited by tourists or pilgrims were Madai'n Saleh, an ancient city located in northern Saudi Arabia.

Mada'in Saleh also called Al-Hijr Hegra-or Greek-lies about 1,400 kilometers north of Riyadh. The name Al-Hijr used until the 14th century AD, and is now better known as Madai'n Saleh, Saleh as attribute to the Prophet.


Mada'in Saleh regarded as one of the most important and oldest old in Saudi Arabia. This historic site is located in the northwest of the town of Al-Ula, in a strategic position in one of the most important route in the ancient trade. This region connects the southern Arabian peninsula to the north, along with the advance of economic and cultural center of Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt.


Mada'in Saleh marked by impressive rock formations, sand dunes variety of colors, from red, yellow and white. The beauty of the landscape is increasingly attractive as menjulangnya golden sand dunes that restrict all sides. Mada'in Saleh Area as a whole around 4010 hectares, which consists of a variety of complex burial and place of residence. In 2008, UNESCO declared Mada'in Saleh as world heritage site, the first in Saudi Arabia.


In the 19th century, as one of the archaeological heritage that emerged in the Near East, began to replace Mada'in Saleh Al-Hijr as the official name. Although it is believed that the site of the prophet Saleh was here, but the pieces of stone tomb at Al-Hijr carved many years later by the Nabataea, a different Arab civilization.


The Nabataea are of Arab descent who became rich by monopolizing the spice trade, especially between the Eastern and Roman, Greek and Egyptian empire. Nabataea tribe said to be a tribe of mysterious, though most historians call it included in the group of Arabs.


Before Nabataea, who inhabit Mada'in Saleh is Thamood, who lived between the time of Noah until the time of Prophet Musa. However, because the skills to carve rocks between two different civilizations which are in one location, the information that appears finally to be the belief that Nabataea graves in Al-Hijr is the residence Thamood, the Prophet Saleh.


Though the civilization of both nations separated a distance of about two millennia. Most theologians and historians believe that the Prophet Saleh lived around 2100 BC, while the tomb of Al-Hijr Nabataea newly carved by tribes in the 1st century AD.


According to the holy book the Qur'an, third millennium BC, the site has been occupied by Mada'in Saleh Thamud tribe. They are a people who worship idols, where tyranny and oppression became prevalent. Prophet Saleh as, according to the name of Mada'in Saleh, invites Thamood to repent and worship God Almighty.


However Thamood refuse, they even asked the Prophet to summon a female camel from behind the hill to prove the truth of his message. Prophet Saleh also called the camel, he suddenly came from behind the hill. Camels were sent by God as proof of the truth of the mission of Prophet Saleh.


However, only a small proportion who believe in the mission of Prophet Saleh. Those who refuse to kill even the sacred camel, not caring as they pleaded. Suddenly the camel calf ran back behind the hill where she came as she was screaming.


Thamood given three days to repent before the punishment comes. But they remain just ignorant and do not heed the warnings of the Prophet Saleh. Finally, the Prophet Saleh and his followers left the city. And Thamood get punishment of God-their lives floating in the middle of explosion earthquakes and lightning strike.


Mada'in Saleh archaeological sites located in arid environments, and the dry climate. This gives an idea of ​​the strength and durability Nabataea tribal life. In the Old Testament and some old manuscripts, mentioned that in the past this town called Dedan. In this city Mada'in Saleh archaeological sites are located.

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